There is a continuous chain of mountain ranges in the northern part of Pakistan, Nepal and India. The major part of the Himalayan range bisects the territories of India and Nepal while Pakistan is also under the shade of this mighty mountain range. The Himalayan range is bordered by the Karakoram range and the Hindukush range in the northwest. Himalaya range bordered by Tibetan plateau in the north and Indo-Gangetic plain in the south. The word Himalaya comes from the Sanskrit language which means Hima-Snow and layas-about, together it means ‘about the snow’. This mountain range originates from Juglot Pakistan which is also the confluence point of Himalaya, Karakuram and Hidukush mountain ranges.
The Himalayan Range
The Himalayan range consists of three parallel ranges:
- The greater Himalayas or Himadari range
- The middle Himalayas of the Himachal range
- The lesser Himalayas or Shiwalik range
The world’s tallest mountain Mount Everest situated in the Himalayan range which is located in Nepal. Some of the other highest peaks in this range are Kanchenjunga, Nanga Parbat (Pakistan), and Nanga Devi. The greater Himalayas has many mountain passes, a route through a mountain called a mountain pass.
Some important passes in the Himalayan ranges are:
- Zoji La
- Shipki La
- Jepi La
- Nathu La
- Rohtang pass
- Zanskar La
- Ghondoghro La
- Indra Koli La
The greater Himalayas
The greater Himalayas are covered with snow throughout the year. Many glaciers are present in this range of the Himalayas. Glaciers are large masses of moving ice, many Himalayan rivers are made after the melting of glaciers.
The middle Himalayas
The middle Himalayas are found between the greater and lesser Himalayan ranges. Many beautiful valleys are situated in the middle Himalayas such as the Kashmir valley. Hill stations such as Shimla, Masuri, and Darjiling are located in this range. This region is well suited for growing crops. The thick forest of the middle Himalayas consists of palm trees, walnuts, pine, spurs, and juniper. These trees are useful to us in many ways. These ranges are also famous for apple orchards and deep plantations.
The lesser Himalaya
The lesser Himalaya is made of mud and soft rocks. It is not the continuous range like the other two ranges.
The Himalayas saved the region from many invasions in the past. They also act as a barrier to the cold winds blowing from Central Asia in winter. the Himalayas stop the rain baring clouds leaving the region. Thus, they cause many spots of rain within the range of the Himalayas. The Himalayan forests provide valuable woods and medicinal plants. These forests are home to a variety of animals such as sheep, goats, and tigers. Adventure sports in the Himalayas are very famous across the world.